La leptospirose humaine en Guyane : état des connaissances et perspectives

Abstract : Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The warm and wet climate of the intertropical zone is particularly favorable with its expansion. In French Guiana, a French territory located at the North-East of the South American continent in Amazonian area, it seems to be rare. The objective of this article is to make the inventory of current knowledge on the epidemiology of human leptospirosis in French Guiana, and to discuss the prospects concerning this disease and improve its surveillance. Publications on leptospirosis in French Guiana are rare and old, and date from 1940 to 1995. The annual reports of the National Reference Centre of Leptospirosis (NRC, Pasteur Institute) show a quite stable annual number of cases, varying from 6 to 18 between 1996 and 2012, depending on the year, with a significant increase from 2013 to 2015, respectively 36, 92 and 67 cases a year. A retrospective study conducted recently on the cases which occurred between 2007 and 2014 with very strict inclusion criteria, identified 72 cases on the territory, among whom 12 (16.7%) severe cases and 3 (4.2%) deaths. The disease affects mainly men (86.1%) aged between 20 and 49 years (63.9%). It is probable that leptospirosis is a neglected disease in the region, due to the absence of quickly available diagnostic tools, the lack of awareness of clinicians on this pathology, and the existence of many other infectious agents with similar clinical presentations during acute episodes (such as malarias, arboviruses, Q fever and Amazonian toxoplasmosis). The implementation of larger studies is necessary to know the true burden of this disease in French Guiana.
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Loïc Epelboin, Paul Le Turnier, Mathieu Picardeau, Roxane Schaub, Marion Petit-Sinturel, et al.. La leptospirose humaine en Guyane : état des connaissances et perspectives. Bulletin d'épidémiologie hebdomadaire, INVS, 2017, 8-9, pp.168-175. ⟨inserm-01503825⟩

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